Fig. 1, above shows an illustration of a Open Pit Surface Mine. The definition of a open pit mine is "an excavation or cut made at the surface of the ground for the purpose of extracting ore and which is open to the surface for the duration of the mine's life."
Mountaintop-removal mines in Appalachia are estimated to produce just 5 to 10 percent of total U.S. coal production, and generate less than 4 percent of our electricity—an amount that could be eliminated from the energy supply with small gains in energy efficiency and conservation.
Mining the Coal. Coal miners use giant machines to remove coal from the ground. They use two methods: surface or underground mining. Many U.S. coal beds are very near the ground's surface, and about two-thirds of coal production comes from surface mines.
Augur (or Punch) Mining A form of unmanned underground mining offering minimal capital cost and relatively short start up periods. Large augers or remote-controlled mine equipment bore into coal seams from roadways established on the floor of surface exposures.
The U.S. Government's Official Website for the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM). OSM's business practices are to reclaim abandoned mine lands (Title IV), regulate active coal mines (Title V), and apply sound science through technology transfer.
The top ten coal consuming countries account for over 85% of the world's total coal consumption, with China alone consuming as much as rest of the world together. profiles the ten biggest coal consumers based on latest coal consumption and production data. China's coal ...
By the Civil War era, coal was king in the United States. Success and prosperity, however, were not shared by all in the anthracite region. The new and often rough-hewn coal communities that sprouted up during the anthracite boom became rigidly defined places, where elite and often arrogant coal operators built magnificent Victorian mansions ...
Surface mining is defined as the extraction of ore from an open pit or burrow. Surface mining is sometimes known as open-pit, open-cut or open-cast mining and is only commercially viable if the deposit is located relative close to the surface. Less than 20% of Alberta's bitumen reserves