mountain top strip mining coal

The Carpathian Connection - Pennsylvania

After the Boom. Eastern Christians cling to their faith as time runs out on the former coal towns of Pennsylvania, reports Jacqueline Ruyak with photographs by Cody Christopulos

Mountaintop removal mining - Wikipedia

Mountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain. Coal seams are extracted from a mountain by removing the land, or overburden, above the seams.

What is mountaintop removal coal mining? -

Mountaintop removal is a relatively new type of coal mining that began in Appalachia in the 1970s as an extension of conventional strip mining techniques.

Coal mining |

Coal mining: Coal mining, extraction of coal deposits from the surface of Earth and from underground. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel on Earth. Its predominant use has always been for producing heat energy.

Surface mining - Wikipedia

"Strip mining" is the practice of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock (the overburden).It is most commonly used to mine coal and lignite (brown coal).

Chapter 1513: COAL SURFACE MINING - Ohio Laws and Rules

Chapter 1513: COAL SURFACE MINING. 1513.01 Coal surface mining definitions. As used in this chapter: "Approximate original contour" means that surface configuration achieved by backfilling and grading of a mined area so that the reclaimed area, including any terracing or access roads, closely resembles the general surface configuration of the ...

What Is Mountaintop Removal Mining? | Earthjustice

Mountaintop removal coal mining, often described as "strip mining on steroids," is an extremely destructive form of mining that is devastating Appalachia.

Plundering Appalachia - The Tragedy of Mountaintop-Removal ...

The most profitable way to decapitate a mountain. Blow its top off, section by section, and then move the rubble with heavy equipment.

Mountaintop Removal 101 > Appalachian Voices

Mountaintop removal is any method of surface coal mining that destroys a mountaintop or ridgeline, whether or not the mined area will be returned to what is legally described as the "approximate original contour."

How Coal Works | Union of Concerned Scientists

Strip mining is used when coal seams are located close to the surface. It relies on very large machinery and requires many fewer workers per unit of coal. First, vegetation and soil are removed from the immediate surface.

Glossary of Mining Terms - Coal Education

A. Abutment - In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back ...

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