The process of extracting copper from copper ore varies according to the type of ore and the desired purity of the final product. Each process consists of several steps in which unwanted materials are physically or chemically removed, and the concentration of copper is progressively increased.
The Problem and the Cleanup Acid mine drainage is a global problem. In the eastern United States alone, AMD from coal mines has adversely impacted fisheries associated with over 13,000 kilometers (8,000 miles) of streams in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Maryland.
Surface mining is defined as the extraction of ore from an open pit or burrow. Surface mining is sometimes known as open-pit, open-cut or open-cast mining and is only commercially viable if the deposit is located relative close to the surface. Less than 20% of Alberta's bitumen reserves