The Mining Charter requires that mining companies have 26% ownership by historically disadvantaged South Africans (HDSAs) by the end of 2014. It also requires that a substantial proportion of procurement by mining companies is from black economic-empowerment (BEE) entities – mining suppliers that have more than 26% HDSA ownership.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production.
Universal Coal plc Universal Coal is committed to building a sustainable mid-tier coal mining company providing investors with exposure to Southern African coking and thermal coal assets with the potential to develop into projects of regional significance.